Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Class E PA for WSPR with home brew variometer in the antenna coupler

Ross, VK1UN and EX0AA, is a frequent traveller and likes to get on air with WSPR under challenging conditions including using stealthy end fed antennas deployed from a window from hotels or flats. Currently he’s transmitting in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan and getting amazing results even on 160m or lower.

His current configuration is interesting in several ways, he uses an Ultimate3 Beacon from QRP-Labs to drive a very efficient home brew class E PA that is coupled to an end fed wire antenna via a coupler with a home brew variometer.

The Class E PA is designed for 12V and 10.09W which, with an IRF530, gives a MOSFET R of exactly 4 Ohms and the PI output network of exactly 4 Ohms input and output as well. 

Why not 50 Ohms?

These PAs are designed for a single series C from PI out and shunt L (variometer) to match to a long wire. Also, he has a decent 4 Ohm load that can be used to test stage one of these PA's operation at 4 Ohms. The main strategy with these PAs is that, if the antenna changes such that the input |Z| is different, he can change the series C and L on variometer very easily.


L4 is the variometer and the secret to easily tuning different end fed antennas. When Ross had a good match direct from the PA via a series L (FET match) and then series LC match to the wire with a lumped inductor, a change the the wire's |Z| required a lot of work calculating and re-winding a new toroid. A variometer is a low cost and easily adjustable alternative to a roller inductor and can be home built.


The other advantage is, that in a 4 Ohm PI out can use 50V SMD caps without exceeding ratings and can get all values unlike those available as 500V caps.

Ross has built versions for several bands but most recently a 160m version which puts out 3W at 5.75V with good results and has a near perfect D-S waveform and good looking spectrum.


DC power input is very modest and efficiency is about 95%.


Here's the PA.


Ross is well received on WSPR from his remote location. Here's the display in the new WSPR Watch for macOS.


Thanks to Ross for sharing this project with us.

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